Publications

Submitted
Kossek EE, Rosokha LM, Leana C. Work Schedule Patching in Health Care: Exploring Implementation Approaches. Work and Occupations [Internet]. Submitted :0730888419841101. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The authors propose a typology of “work schedule patching,” the ongoing adjustments made to plug scheduling holes after employers post schedules. Patching occurs due to changes in employer work demands, or employee nonwork demands necessitating scheduling adjustments, which are reactive or proactive. Using qualitative data from eight health-care facilities, the authors identified three narratives justifying schedule patching implementation approaches (share-the-pain, work-life-needs, and reverse-status-rotation) with variation in formalization and improvisation. Exploratory analysis showed a suggestive link between improvised work–life scheduling and lower pressure ulcers. This article advances theory on balancing the “service triangle” of scheduling in-service economies including health care.
2019
Lee S, Buxton OM, Andel R, Almeida DM. Bidirectional associations of sleep with cognitive interference in employees' work days. Sleep Health. 2019.Abstract
OBJECTIVES: Studies have reported bidirectional associations of sleep with daily stressors and negative mood. Yet we know little about how sleep is associated with workers' daily cognitive interference, or the experience of off-task and distracting thoughts. This study examined whether nightly sleep was associated with next-day cognitive interference, and vice versa, during workdays and non-work days. DESIGN: Daily telephone interviews. SETTING: US information technology workplaces. PARTICIPANTS: 130 middle-aged employees. MEASUREMENTS: On 8 consecutive days, participants reported the frequency of experiencing off-task and distracting thoughts during the day (0 = never to 4 = very often) and multiple sleep characteristics (bedtimes, wake times, sleep duration, sleep quality, and sleep latency). Covariates included sociodemographic characteristics and work hours. RESULTS: Multilevel models revealed that, on days following earlier wake times (B = -0.32, P < .01), shorter sleep duration (B = -0.27, P < .01), or poorer sleep quality (B = -0.17, P < .01), participants reported more cognitive interference than usual. That is, waking 19 minutes earlier and sleeping 16 minutes less were associated with one additional point on the cognitive interference scale the next day. With cognitive interference predicting nightly sleep, more same day's cognitive interference was associated with earlier bedtimes (B = -0.19, P < .05) and earlier wake times (B = -0.30, P < .01) than usual. The temporal associations of nightly sleep duration and sleep quality with the following day's cognitive interference were significant on work days, but not on non-work days. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest bidirectional associations between poorer sleep and more cognitive interference, particularly on work days with implications for workday productivity and quality of life.
Lee S, Mogle JA, Jackson CL, Buxton OM. What's not fair about work keeps me up: Perceived unfairness about work impairs sleep through negative work-to-family spillover. Social Science Research [Internet]. 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
This study examined whether perceived unfairness about work was linked to midlife workers' insomnia symptoms over time, and if the association was mediated by negative work-to-family spillover (NWFS). We used 3 waves of longitudinal data across 20 years from the Midlife in the United States Study (N = 971, Mage = 40.52). Results revealed that, wave-to-wave increases in perceived unfairness about work predicted wave-to-wave increases in NWFS over 20 years. Wave-to-wave increases in NWFS, in turn, predicted wave-to-wave increases in insomnia symptoms. Perceived unfairness about work was indirectly, but not directly associated with insomnia symptoms through NWFS. These within-person indirect mediation pathways were found after controlling for sociodemographic and family characteristics, work hours, neuroticism, physical health, and between-person associations between perceived unfairness about work, NWFS, and insomnia symptoms. These findings suggest that perceived unfairness about work may degrade workers’ sleep health over time, through the spillover of work stress to the personal domain.
DePasquale N, Crain T, Buxton OM, Zarit SH, Almeida DM. Tonight’s Sleep Predicts Tomorrow’s Fatigue: A Daily Diary Study of Long-Term Care Employees With Nonwork Caregiving Roles. The Gerontologist [Internet]. 2019 :gny176. Publisher's Version
Kossek EE, Thompson RJ, Lawson KM, Bodner T, Perrigino MB, Hammer LB, Buxton OM, Almeida DM, Moen P, Hurtado DA, et al. Caring for the Elderly at Work and Home: Can a Randomized Organizational Intervention Improve Psychological Health?. J Occup Health Psychol [Internet]. 2019. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Although job stress models suggest that changing the work social environment to increase job resources improves psychological health, many intervention studies have weak designs and overlook influences of family caregiving demands. We tested the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase supervisor social support for work and nonwork roles, and job control in a results-oriented work environment on the stress and psychological distress of health care employees who care for the elderly, while simultaneously considering their own family caregiving responsibilities. Using a group-randomized organizational field trial with an intent-to-treat design, 420 caregivers in 15 intervention extended-care nursing facilities were compared with 511 caregivers in 15 control facilities at 4 measurement times: preintervention and 6, 12, and 18 months. There were no main intervention effects showing improvements in stress and psychological distress when comparing intervention with control sites. Moderation analyses indicate that the intervention was more effective in reducing stress and psychological distress for caregivers who were also caring for other family members off the job (those with elders and those "sandwiched" with both child and elder caregiving responsibilities) compared with employees without caregiving demands. These findings extend previous studies by showing that the effect of organizational interventions designed to increase job resources to improve psychological health varies according to differences in nonwork caregiving demands. This research suggests that caregivers, especially those with "double-duty" elder caregiving at home and work and "triple-duty" responsibilities, including child care, may benefit from interventions designed to increase work-nonwork social support and job control. (PsycINFO Database Record
2018
Trombley M, Bray J, Hinde J, Buxton OM, Johnson R. Investigating the Negative Relationship between Wages and Obesity: New Evidence from the Work, Family, and Health Network. Nordic Journal of Health Economics [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
A substantial literature has established that obesity is negatively associated with wages, particularly among females.  However, prior research has found limited evidence for the factors hypothesized to underlie the obesity wage penalty.  We add to the literature using data from IT workers at a U.S. Fortune 500 firm that provides us with direct measures of employee income and BMI, and health measures that are unavailable in national-level datasets.  Our estimates indicate that the wage-obesity penalty among females only occurs among obese mothers, and is not attributable to differences in health or human capital that may be caused by having children.
Fan W, Moen P, Kelly EL, Hammer LB, Berkman LF. Job strain, time strain, and well-being: A longitudinal, person-centered approach in two industries. Journal of Vocational Behavior [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
The notion of constellations is central to many occupational health theories; empirical research is nevertheless dominated by variable-centered methodologies. Guided by the job demands-resources framework, we use a person-centered longitudinal approach to identify constellations of job demands and resources (task-based and time-based) over time that predict changes in well-being. We situate our research in two dissimilar, but growing, industries in the United States—information technology (IT) and long-term care. Drawing on data collected over 18 months, we identify five patterned, stable constellations of job demands/resources using group-based multi-trajectory modeling: (1) high strain/low hours, (2) high strain/low hours/shift work, (3) high strain/long hours, (4) active (high demands, high control) and (5) lower strain (lower demands, high control). IT workers are overrepresented in the lower-strain and active constellations, whereas long-term care providers are more often in high-strain constellations. Workers in the lower-strain constellation experience increased job satisfaction and decreased emotional exhaustion, work-family conflict and psychological distress over 18 months. In comparison, workers in high-strain job constellations fare worse on these outcomes, as do those in the active constellation. Industrial contexts matter, however: Compared with long-term care workers, IT workers' well-being is more at risk when working in the “high strain/long hours” constellation. As the labor market continues to experience structural changes, scholars and policy makers need to attend to redesigning the ecological contexts of work conditions to promote workers' well-being while taking into account industrial differences.
Lawson KM, Lee S. Better previous night sleep is associated with less next day work-to-family conflict mediated by higher work performance among female nursing home workers. Sleep Health [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Objectives Cross-sectional research has found that shorter and poorer sleep are associated with lower work performance and greater work-to-family conflict (WTFC). However, we know little about daily mechanisms linking sleep, work performance, and WTFC. This study tested whether previous nights' sleep was linked to next day WTFC, mediated by work performance. Design Daily interview methodology. Setting US extended-care workplaces. Participants One hundred seventy-one female employees with children aged 9 to 17 years. Measurements In telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings, participants reported their daily work performance (work productivity, work quality), WTFC (e.g., “how much did things you wanted to do at home not get done because of the demands your job put on you?”), and previous nights' sleep duration (in hours) and sleep quality (1 = very badl
Kossek EE, Petty RJ, Bodner TE, Perrigino MB, Hammer LB, Yragui NL, Michel JS. Lasting Impression: Transformational Leadership and Family Supportive Supervision as Resources for Well-Being and Performance. Occupational Health Science [Internet]. 2018;2 (1) :1–24. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Although evidence is growing in the occupational health field that supervisors are a critical influence on subordinates' reports of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), our understanding is limited regarding the antecedents of employee's FSSB perceptions and their lagged effects on future health and work outcomes. Drawing on a positive job resource perspective, we argue that supervisors who report that they use transformational leadership (TL) styles are more likely to have subordinates with higher FSSB perceptions. We theorize that these enhanced perceptions of work-family specific support increase access to personal and social resources (objectively and subjectively) that buffer work-nonwork demands and enhance health (mental, physical) and job outcomes (performance appraisal ratings, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, work-family conflict). Time-lagged multi-source survey data collected in a field study from retail employees and their supervisors and archival performance ratings data collected a year later support our proposed relationships (with the exception that for health, only mental health and not physical health was significant). Post hoc analyses showed that employees' FSSB perceptions play a mediating role between supervisor TL and job satisfaction and work-family conflict, but no other outcomes studied. Overall, this study answers calls in the occupational health literature to use stronger designs to determine linkages between leadership-related workplace phenomena as antecedents of health, work-family, and job outcomes. Our results demonstrate that employees with supervisors who report that they use transformational leadership styles are more likely to perceive higher levels of family supportive supervision, which are positive job resources that enhance occupational health.
Crain TL, Hammer LB, Bodner T, Olson R, Kossek EE, Moen P, Buxton OM. Sustaining sleep: Results from the randomized controlled work, family, and health study. Journal of occupational health psychology [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's Version
Buxton OM, Soomi L, Miguel M, Beverly C, Almeida DM, Berkman LF. Sleep health and predicted cardiometabolic risk scores in employed adults from two industries. J Clin Sleep Med [Internet]. 2018;14 (3) :371–383. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Study Objectives: Sleep disorders and sleep deficiency can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Less is known about whether multiple positive attributes of sleep health known as the SATED (satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) model, can decrease future cardiovascular disease risks. We examined whether and how a variety of indicators of sleep health predicted 10-year estimated cardiometabolic risk scores (CRS) among employed adults.

Methods: Workers in two industries—extended care (n = 1,275) and information technology (IT; n = 577)—reported on habitual sleep apnea symptoms and sleep sufficiency, and provided 1 week of actigraphy data including nighttime sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep timing, and daytime napping. Workers also provided biomarkers to calculate future cardiometabolic risk.

Results: More sleep apnea symptoms predicted higher CRS in both industries. More sleep sufficiency, less WASO, and less daytime napping (having no naps, fewer naps, and shorter nap duration) were also linked to lower CRS, but only in the extended care workers. There was no effect of sleep duration in both industries. In the IT employee sample, shorter sleep duration (≤ 6 hours versus 6–8 hours) and more naps strengthened the link between sleep apnea and CRS.

Conclusions: Sleep health, measured by both subjective and objective methods, was associated with lower cardiometabolic disease risks among extended care workers (lower to middle wage workers). Sleep apnea was an important predictor of CRS; for the IT workers, the link between sleep apnea and CRS was exacerbated when they had poorer sleep health behaviors.

Almeida DM, Lee S, Walter KN, Lawson KM, Kelly EL, Buxton OM. The effects of a workplace intervention on employees’ cortisol awakening response. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2018;21 (2) :151-167. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTWork-related stressors are known to adversely affect employees’ stress physiology, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR) – or the spike in cortisol levels shortly after people wake up that aids in mobilizing energy. A flat or blunted CAR has been linked to chronic stress and burnout. This daily diary study tested the effects of a workplace intervention on employed parents’ CAR. Specifically, we tested whether the effects of the intervention on CAR were moderated by the type of days (workday versus non-work day). Data came from 94 employed parents from an information technology firm who participated in the baseline and 12-month diurnal cortisol components of the Work, Family, and Health Study, a group-randomized field experiment. The workplace intervention was designed to reduce work-family conflict (WFC) and implemented after the baseline data collection. Diurnal salivary cortisol was collected on 4 days at both baseline and 12 months. Multilevel modeling revealed that the intervention significantly increased employees’ CAR at 12 months on non-workdays, but this was not evident on workdays or for employees in the usual practice condition. The results provide evidence that the intervention was effective in enhancing employees’ biological stress physiology particularly during opportunities for recovery that are more likely to occur on non-work days.
O'Donnell EM, Berkman LF, Kelly EL, Hammer LB, Marden J, Buxton OM. Cardiometabolic risks associated with work-to-family conflict: findings from the Work Family Health Network. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2018 :1-26. Publisher's Version
DePasquale N, Sliwinski MJ, Zarit SH, Buxton OM, Almeida DM. Unpaid Caregiving Roles and Sleep Among Women Working in Nursing Homes: A Longitudinal Study. The Gerontologist [Internet]. 2018 :gnx185. Publisher's Version
2017
Kossek EE, Wipfli B, Thompson R, Brockwood K. The Work, Family, and Health Network Organizational Intervention: Core Elements and Customization for Diverse Occupational Health Contexts. In: Occupational Health Disparities: Improving the Well-Being of Ethnic and Racial Minority Workers. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association ; 2017. pp. 181-215. Publisher's Version
Lee S, McHale SM, Crouter AC, Kelly EL, Buxton OM, Almeida DM. Perceived time adequacy improves daily well-being: day-to-day linkages and the effects of a workplace intervention. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2017;20 (5) :500-522. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTWorkplace interventions may change how employed parents experience family and personal time. This study examined the day-to-day linkages between time resources (assessed by time use and perceived time adequacy for parenting, partner, and personal roles) and daily well-being and tested whether a workplace intervention enhanced the linkages. Participants were employed, partnered parents in the information technology division of a large US firm and who provided eight-day diary data at two times (N = 90). Multilevel modeling revealed that, on days when parents perceived lower time adequacy than usual for the three roles, they reported less positive affect, more negative affect, and more physical symptoms, independent of time spent in the roles. Moreover, a workplace intervention designed to give employees more temporal flexibility and support for family responsibilities increased daily time spent with the focal child and increased perceived time adequacy for exercise. The intervention also decreased negative affect and physical symptoms for parents who spent more time with child and partner than the sample average. Our results highlight the importance of perceived time adequacy in daily well-being and suggest that workplace support can enhance perceived time adequacy for self and the experience of family time.
Williams JA, Buxton OM, Hinde JM, Bray JW, Berkman LF. Psychosocial Workplace Factors and Healthcare Utilization: A Study of Two Employers. International Journal of Health Policy and Management [Internet]. 2017 :–. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background While a large literature links psychosocial workplace factors with health and health behaviors, there is very little work connecting psychosocial workplace factors to healthcare utilization.   Methods Survey data were collected from two different employers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing as a part of the Work-Family Health Network (2008-2013): one in the information technology (IT) service industry and one that is responsible for a network of long-term care (LTC) facilities. Participants were surveyed four times at six month intervals. Responses in each wave were used to predict utilization in the following wave. Four utilization measures were outcomes: having at least one emergency room (ER)/Urgent care, having at least one other healthcare visit, number of ER/urgent care visits, and number of other healthcare visits. Population-averaged models using all four waves controlled for health and other factors associated with utilization.   Results Having above median job demands was positively related to the odds of at least one healthcare visit, odds ratio [OR] 1.37 (P < .01), and the number of healthcare visits, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.36 (P < .05), in the LTC sample. Work-to-family conflict was positively associated with the odds of at least one ER/urgent care visit in the LTC sample, OR 1.15 (P < .05), at least one healthcare visit in the IT sample, OR 1.35 (P < .01), and with more visits in the IT sample, IRR 1.35 (P < .01). Greater schedule control was associated with reductions in the number of ER/urgent care visits, IRR 0.71 (P < .05), in the IT sample.   Conclusion Controlling for other factors, some psychosocial workplace factors were associated with future healthcare utilization. Additional research is needed.
Lee S, Martire LM, Damaske SA, Mogle J, Zhaoyang R, Almeida DM, Buxton OM. Covariation in couples' nightly sleep and gender differences. Sleep Health [Internet]. 2017 :-. Publisher's VersionAbstract
AbstractObjectives For most partnered adults, sleep is not an individual-level behavior―it is a shared health behavior with a partner. This study examined whether perceived nightly sleep duration and sleep quality covaried within couples and whether the unique influence of partner sleep on individual sleep differed by gender. Design Eight consecutive days of diary data. Participants \US\ hotel employees and their spouses/partners (N = 76 from 38 couples, 600 daily observations). Measurements Each day, couples separately reported their previous night's sleep duration (in hours) and sleep quality (1 = very unsatisfactory to 5 = very satisfactory). Analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, family, work, and day-level characteristics. Results Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed positive covariation in nightly sleep duration within couples. After controlling for the effects of contextual covariates, partner influence on individual sleep duration was more apparent in men's sleep. When a female's sleep duration was longer or shorter than usual, their male partner's sleep duration was also longer or shorter than usual, respectively. However, a female's sleep was not significantly predicted by her male partner's sleep duration after taking into account the effects of her sleep on the male partner's sleep and contextual covariates. Sleep quality covaried on average across days between partners, and this association did not differ by gender. Conclusions Our results demonstrate positive covariation in sleep duration and sleep quality within couples. Couples' sleep duration covaried night-to-night, and their sleep quality covaried on average across days. A male's sleep duration is predicted by the female partner's sleep duration but not vice versa. Future research should examine health consequences of couple sleep covariation.
Shafer EF, Kelly EL, Buxton OM, Berkman LF. Partners’ overwork and individuals’ wellbeing and experienced relationship quality. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2017 :1-19. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTIn this paper, using high quality data from the Work, Family, and Health Network in a sample of IT workers in the US (N = 590), we examine whether partners’ long work hours are associated with individuals’ perceived stress, time adequacy with partner, and relationship quality, and whether these relationships vary by gender. In addition, following the marital stress model, we investigate whether any negative correlation between partners’ long work hours and relationship quality is mediated by time adequacy or perceived stress. We find that women partnered to men who work long hours (50 or more hours per week) have significantly higher perceived stress and significantly lower time adequacy and relationship quality compared to women partnered to men who work a standard full-time work week (35–49 hours). Further, the increased stress associated with being partnered to a man who overworks, not lower time adequacy, mediates the negative relationship between overwork and relationship quality. Conversely, we find that men partnered to women who work long hours report no differences in stress, time adequacy, or relationship quality than men who are partnered to women who work a standard full-time work week.
DePasquale N, Polenick CA, Davis KD, Berkman LF. A Bright Side to the Work–Family Interface: Husbands’ Support as a Resource in Double-and-Triple-Duty Caregiving Wives’ Work Lives. The Gerontologist [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Purpose of the Study:
This study examined how women who combine long-term care employment with unpaid, informal caregiving roles for children (double-duty-child caregivers), older adults (double-duty-elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers) differed from their workplace-only caregiving counterparts on workplace factors related to job retention (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions) and performance (i.e., perceived obligation to work while sick and emotional exhaustion). The moderating effects of perceived spouse support were also examined.
Design and Methods:
Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 546 married, heterosexual women employed in U.S.-based nursing homes.
Results:
Compared to workplace-only caregivers, double-duty-elder and triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion. Double-duty-child caregivers reported lower turnover intentions and both double-and-triple-duty caregivers felt less obligated to work while sick when perceiving greater support from husbands.
Implications:
Results indicate that double-and-triple-duty caregiving women’s job retention and obligation to work while sick may depend on perceived spouse support, highlighting the important role husbands play in their wives’ professional lives. Findings also lend support to the emerging literature on marriage-to-work positive spillover, and suggest that long-term care organizations should target marital relationships in family-friendly initiatives to retain and engage double-and-triple-duty caregiving employees.

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