Publications

2018
Lawson KM, Lee S. Better previous night sleep is associated with less next day work-to-family conflict mediated by higher work performance among female nursing home workers. Sleep Health [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Objectives Cross-sectional research has found that shorter and poorer sleep are associated with lower work performance and greater work-to-family conflict (WTFC). However, we know little about daily mechanisms linking sleep, work performance, and WTFC. This study tested whether previous nights' sleep was linked to next day WTFC, mediated by work performance. Design Daily interview methodology. Setting US extended-care workplaces. Participants One hundred seventy-one female employees with children aged 9 to 17 years. Measurements In telephone interviews on 8 consecutive evenings, participants reported their daily work performance (work productivity, work quality), WTFC (e.g., “how much did things you wanted to do at home not get done because of the demands your job put on you?”), and previous nights' sleep duration (in hours) and sleep quality (1 = very badl
Kossek EE, Petty RJ, Bodner TE, Perrigino MB, Hammer LB, Yragui NL, Michel JS. Lasting Impression: Transformational Leadership and Family Supportive Supervision as Resources for Well-Being and Performance. Occupational Health Science [Internet]. 2018;2 (1) :1–24. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Although evidence is growing in the occupational health field that supervisors are a critical influence on subordinates' reports of family supportive supervisor behaviors (FSSB), our understanding is limited regarding the antecedents of employee's FSSB perceptions and their lagged effects on future health and work outcomes. Drawing on a positive job resource perspective, we argue that supervisors who report that they use transformational leadership (TL) styles are more likely to have subordinates with higher FSSB perceptions. We theorize that these enhanced perceptions of work-family specific support increase access to personal and social resources (objectively and subjectively) that buffer work-nonwork demands and enhance health (mental, physical) and job outcomes (performance appraisal ratings, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, work-family conflict). Time-lagged multi-source survey data collected in a field study from retail employees and their supervisors and archival performance ratings data collected a year later support our proposed relationships (with the exception that for health, only mental health and not physical health was significant). Post hoc analyses showed that employees' FSSB perceptions play a mediating role between supervisor TL and job satisfaction and work-family conflict, but no other outcomes studied. Overall, this study answers calls in the occupational health literature to use stronger designs to determine linkages between leadership-related workplace phenomena as antecedents of health, work-family, and job outcomes. Our results demonstrate that employees with supervisors who report that they use transformational leadership styles are more likely to perceive higher levels of family supportive supervision, which are positive job resources that enhance occupational health.
Crain TL, Hammer LB, Bodner T, Olson R, Kossek EE, Moen P, Buxton OM. Sustaining sleep: Results from the randomized controlled work, family, and health study. Journal of occupational health psychology [Internet]. 2018. Publisher's Version
Buxton OM, Soomi L, Miguel M, Beverly C, Almeida DM, Berkman LF. Sleep health and predicted cardiometabolic risk scores in employed adults from two industries. J Clin Sleep Med [Internet]. 2018;14 (3) :371–383. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Study Objectives: Sleep disorders and sleep deficiency can increase the risk for cardiovascular disease. Less is known about whether multiple positive attributes of sleep health known as the SATED (satisfaction, alertness, timing, efficiency, and duration) model, can decrease future cardiovascular disease risks. We examined whether and how a variety of indicators of sleep health predicted 10-year estimated cardiometabolic risk scores (CRS) among employed adults.

Methods: Workers in two industries—extended care (n = 1,275) and information technology (IT; n = 577)—reported on habitual sleep apnea symptoms and sleep sufficiency, and provided 1 week of actigraphy data including nighttime sleep duration, wake after sleep onset (WASO), sleep timing, and daytime napping. Workers also provided biomarkers to calculate future cardiometabolic risk.

Results: More sleep apnea symptoms predicted higher CRS in both industries. More sleep sufficiency, less WASO, and less daytime napping (having no naps, fewer naps, and shorter nap duration) were also linked to lower CRS, but only in the extended care workers. There was no effect of sleep duration in both industries. In the IT employee sample, shorter sleep duration (≤ 6 hours versus 6–8 hours) and more naps strengthened the link between sleep apnea and CRS.

Conclusions: Sleep health, measured by both subjective and objective methods, was associated with lower cardiometabolic disease risks among extended care workers (lower to middle wage workers). Sleep apnea was an important predictor of CRS; for the IT workers, the link between sleep apnea and CRS was exacerbated when they had poorer sleep health behaviors.

Almeida DM, Lee S, Walter KN, Lawson KM, Kelly EL, Buxton OM. The effects of a workplace intervention on employees’ cortisol awakening response. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2018;21 (2) :151-167. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTWork-related stressors are known to adversely affect employees’ stress physiology, including the cortisol awakening response (CAR) – or the spike in cortisol levels shortly after people wake up that aids in mobilizing energy. A flat or blunted CAR has been linked to chronic stress and burnout. This daily diary study tested the effects of a workplace intervention on employed parents’ CAR. Specifically, we tested whether the effects of the intervention on CAR were moderated by the type of days (workday versus non-work day). Data came from 94 employed parents from an information technology firm who participated in the baseline and 12-month diurnal cortisol components of the Work, Family, and Health Study, a group-randomized field experiment. The workplace intervention was designed to reduce work-family conflict (WFC) and implemented after the baseline data collection. Diurnal salivary cortisol was collected on 4 days at both baseline and 12 months. Multilevel modeling revealed that the intervention significantly increased employees’ CAR at 12 months on non-workdays, but this was not evident on workdays or for employees in the usual practice condition. The results provide evidence that the intervention was effective in enhancing employees’ biological stress physiology particularly during opportunities for recovery that are more likely to occur on non-work days.
O'Donnell EM, Berkman LF, Kelly EL, Hammer LB, Marden J, Buxton OM. Cardiometabolic risks associated with work-to-family conflict: findings from the Work Family Health Network. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2018 :1-26. Publisher's Version
DePasquale N, Sliwinski MJ, Zarit SH, Buxton OM, Almeida DM. Unpaid Caregiving Roles and Sleep Among Women Working in Nursing Homes: A Longitudinal Study. The Gerontologist [Internet]. 2018 :gnx185. Publisher's Version
2017
Lee S, McHale SM, Crouter AC, Kelly EL, Buxton OM, Almeida DM. Perceived time adequacy improves daily well-being: day-to-day linkages and the effects of a workplace intervention. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2017;20 (5) :500-522. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTWorkplace interventions may change how employed parents experience family and personal time. This study examined the day-to-day linkages between time resources (assessed by time use and perceived time adequacy for parenting, partner, and personal roles) and daily well-being and tested whether a workplace intervention enhanced the linkages. Participants were employed, partnered parents in the information technology division of a large US firm and who provided eight-day diary data at two times (N = 90). Multilevel modeling revealed that, on days when parents perceived lower time adequacy than usual for the three roles, they reported less positive affect, more negative affect, and more physical symptoms, independent of time spent in the roles. Moreover, a workplace intervention designed to give employees more temporal flexibility and support for family responsibilities increased daily time spent with the focal child and increased perceived time adequacy for exercise. The intervention also decreased negative affect and physical symptoms for parents who spent more time with child and partner than the sample average. Our results highlight the importance of perceived time adequacy in daily well-being and suggest that workplace support can enhance perceived time adequacy for self and the experience of family time.
Williams JA, Buxton OM, Hinde JM, Bray JW, Berkman LF. Psychosocial Workplace Factors and Healthcare Utilization: A Study of Two Employers. International Journal of Health Policy and Management [Internet]. 2017 :–. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Background While a large literature links psychosocial workplace factors with health and health behaviors, there is very little work connecting psychosocial workplace factors to healthcare utilization.   Methods Survey data were collected from two different employers using computer-assisted telephone interviewing as a part of the Work-Family Health Network (2008-2013): one in the information technology (IT) service industry and one that is responsible for a network of long-term care (LTC) facilities. Participants were surveyed four times at six month intervals. Responses in each wave were used to predict utilization in the following wave. Four utilization measures were outcomes: having at least one emergency room (ER)/Urgent care, having at least one other healthcare visit, number of ER/urgent care visits, and number of other healthcare visits. Population-averaged models using all four waves controlled for health and other factors associated with utilization.   Results Having above median job demands was positively related to the odds of at least one healthcare visit, odds ratio [OR] 1.37 (P < .01), and the number of healthcare visits, incidence rate ratio (IRR) 1.36 (P < .05), in the LTC sample. Work-to-family conflict was positively associated with the odds of at least one ER/urgent care visit in the LTC sample, OR 1.15 (P < .05), at least one healthcare visit in the IT sample, OR 1.35 (P < .01), and with more visits in the IT sample, IRR 1.35 (P < .01). Greater schedule control was associated with reductions in the number of ER/urgent care visits, IRR 0.71 (P < .05), in the IT sample.   Conclusion Controlling for other factors, some psychosocial workplace factors were associated with future healthcare utilization. Additional research is needed.
Kossek EE, Thompson RJ, Lawson KM, Bodner T, Perrigino MB, Hammer LB, Buxton OM, Almeida DM, Moen P, Hurtado DA, et al. Caring for the Elderly at Work and Home: Can a Randomized Organizational Intervention Improve Psychological Health?. J Occup Health Psychol [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Although job stress models suggest that changing the work social environment to increase job resources improves psychological health, many intervention studies have weak designs and overlook influences of family caregiving demands. We tested the effects of an organizational intervention designed to increase supervisor social support for work and nonwork roles, and job control in a results-oriented work environment on the stress and psychological distress of health care employees who care for the elderly, while simultaneously considering their own family caregiving responsibilities. Using a group-randomized organizational field trial with an intent-to-treat design, 420 caregivers in 15 intervention extended-care nursing facilities were compared with 511 caregivers in 15 control facilities at 4 measurement times: preintervention and 6, 12, and 18 months. There were no main intervention effects showing improvements in stress and psychological distress when comparing intervention with control sites. Moderation analyses indicate that the intervention was more effective in reducing stress and psychological distress for caregivers who were also caring for other family members off the job (those with elders and those "sandwiched" with both child and elder caregiving responsibilities) compared with employees without caregiving demands. These findings extend previous studies by showing that the effect of organizational interventions designed to increase job resources to improve psychological health varies according to differences in nonwork caregiving demands. This research suggests that caregivers, especially those with "double-duty" elder caregiving at home and work and "triple-duty" responsibilities, including child care, may benefit from interventions designed to increase work-nonwork social support and job control. (PsycINFO Database Record
Lee S, Martire LM, Damaske SA, Mogle J, Zhaoyang R, Almeida DM, Buxton OM. Covariation in couples' nightly sleep and gender differences. Sleep Health [Internet]. 2017 :-. Publisher's VersionAbstract
AbstractObjectives For most partnered adults, sleep is not an individual-level behavior―it is a shared health behavior with a partner. This study examined whether perceived nightly sleep duration and sleep quality covaried within couples and whether the unique influence of partner sleep on individual sleep differed by gender. Design Eight consecutive days of diary data. Participants \US\ hotel employees and their spouses/partners (N = 76 from 38 couples, 600 daily observations). Measurements Each day, couples separately reported their previous night's sleep duration (in hours) and sleep quality (1 = very unsatisfactory to 5 = very satisfactory). Analyses adjusted for sociodemographic, family, work, and day-level characteristics. Results Dyadic multilevel modeling revealed positive covariation in nightly sleep duration within couples. After controlling for the effects of contextual covariates, partner influence on individual sleep duration was more apparent in men's sleep. When a female's sleep duration was longer or shorter than usual, their male partner's sleep duration was also longer or shorter than usual, respectively. However, a female's sleep was not significantly predicted by her male partner's sleep duration after taking into account the effects of her sleep on the male partner's sleep and contextual covariates. Sleep quality covaried on average across days between partners, and this association did not differ by gender. Conclusions Our results demonstrate positive covariation in sleep duration and sleep quality within couples. Couples' sleep duration covaried night-to-night, and their sleep quality covaried on average across days. A male's sleep duration is predicted by the female partner's sleep duration but not vice versa. Future research should examine health consequences of couple sleep covariation.
Shafer EF, Kelly EL, Buxton OM, Berkman LF. Partners’ overwork and individuals’ wellbeing and experienced relationship quality. Community, Work & Family [Internet]. 2017 :1-19. Publisher's VersionAbstract
ABSTRACTIn this paper, using high quality data from the Work, Family, and Health Network in a sample of IT workers in the US (N = 590), we examine whether partners’ long work hours are associated with individuals’ perceived stress, time adequacy with partner, and relationship quality, and whether these relationships vary by gender. In addition, following the marital stress model, we investigate whether any negative correlation between partners’ long work hours and relationship quality is mediated by time adequacy or perceived stress. We find that women partnered to men who work long hours (50 or more hours per week) have significantly higher perceived stress and significantly lower time adequacy and relationship quality compared to women partnered to men who work a standard full-time work week (35–49 hours). Further, the increased stress associated with being partnered to a man who overworks, not lower time adequacy, mediates the negative relationship between overwork and relationship quality. Conversely, we find that men partnered to women who work long hours report no differences in stress, time adequacy, or relationship quality than men who are partnered to women who work a standard full-time work week.
DePasquale N, Polenick CA, Davis KD, Berkman LF. A Bright Side to the Work–Family Interface: Husbands’ Support as a Resource in Double-and-Triple-Duty Caregiving Wives’ Work Lives. The Gerontologist [Internet]. 2017. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Purpose of the Study:
This study examined how women who combine long-term care employment with unpaid, informal caregiving roles for children (double-duty-child caregivers), older adults (double-duty-elder caregivers), and both children and older adults (triple-duty caregivers) differed from their workplace-only caregiving counterparts on workplace factors related to job retention (i.e., job satisfaction and turnover intentions) and performance (i.e., perceived obligation to work while sick and emotional exhaustion). The moderating effects of perceived spouse support were also examined.
Design and Methods:
Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 546 married, heterosexual women employed in U.S.-based nursing homes.
Results:
Compared to workplace-only caregivers, double-duty-elder and triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion. Double-duty-child caregivers reported lower turnover intentions and both double-and-triple-duty caregivers felt less obligated to work while sick when perceiving greater support from husbands.
Implications:
Results indicate that double-and-triple-duty caregiving women’s job retention and obligation to work while sick may depend on perceived spouse support, highlighting the important role husbands play in their wives’ professional lives. Findings also lend support to the emerging literature on marriage-to-work positive spillover, and suggest that long-term care organizations should target marital relationships in family-friendly initiatives to retain and engage double-and-triple-duty caregiving employees.
DePasquale N, Mogle J, Zarit SH, Okechukwu CA, Kossek EE, Almeida DM. The Family Time Squeeze: Perceived Family Time Adequacy Buffers Work Strain in Certified Nursing Assistants With Multiple Caregiving Roles. Gerontologist. 2017.Abstract
PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: This study examined how certified nursing assistants (CNAs) with unpaid family caregiving roles for children ("double-duty-child caregivers"), older adults ("double-duty-elder caregivers"), and both children and older adults ("triple-duty caregivers") differed from their nonfamily caregiving counterparts ("workplace-only caregivers") on four work strain indicators (emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, turnover intentions, and work climate for family sacrifices). The moderating effects of perceived family time adequacy were also evaluated. DESIGN AND METHODS: Regression analyses were conducted on survey data from 972 CNAs working in U.S.-based nursing homes. RESULTS: Compared with workplace-only caregivers, double-and-triple-duty caregivers reported more emotional exhaustion and pressure to make family sacrifices for the sake of work. Triple-duty caregivers also reported less job satisfaction. Perceived family time adequacy buffered double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers' emotional exhaustion and turnover intentions, as well as reversed triple-duty caregivers' negative perceptions of the work climate. IMPLICATIONS: Perceived family time adequacy constitutes a salient psychological resource for double-duty-child and triple-duty caregivers' family time squeezes. Amid an unprecedented demand for long-term care and severe direct-care workforce shortages, future research on workplace factors that increase double-and-triple-duty caregiving CNAs' perceived family time adequacy is warranted to inform long-term care organizations' development of targeted recruitment, retention, and engagement strategies.
Bray JW, Hinde JM, Kaiser DJ, Mills MJ, Karuntzos GT, Genadek KR, Kelly EL, Kossek EE, Hurtado DA. Effects of a Flexibility/Support Intervention on Work Performance. American Journal of Health Promotion [Internet]. 2017 :0890117117696244. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Purpose:To estimate the effects of a workplace initiative to reduce work–family conflict on employee performance.Design:A group-randomized multisite controlled experimental study with longitudinal follow-up.Setting:An information technology firm.Participants:Employees randomized to the intervention (n = 348) and control condition (n = 345).Intervention:An intervention, “Start. Transform. Achieve. Results.” to enhance employees’ control over their work time, to increase supervisors’ support for this change, and to increase employees’ and supervisors’ focus on results.Methods:We estimated the effect of the intervention on 9 self-reported employee performance measures using a difference-in-differences approach with generalized linear mixed models. Performance measures included actual and expected hours worked, absenteeism, and presenteeism.Results:This study found little evidence that an intervention targeting work–family conflict affected employee performance. The only significant effect of the intervention was an approximately 1-hour reduction in expected work hours. After Bonferroni correction, the intervention effect is marginally insignificant at 6 months and marginally significant at 12 and 18 months.Conclusion:The intervention reduced expected working time by 1 hour per week; effects on most other employee self-reported performance measures were statistically insignificant. When coupled with the other positive wellness and firm outcomes, this intervention may be useful for improving employee perceptions of increased access to personal time or personal wellness without sacrificing performance. The null effects on performance provide countervailing evidence to recent negative press on work–family and flex work initiatives.

The Work, Family & Health Network intervention: Core elements and customization for diverse occupational health contexts. In: Occupational Health Disparities: Improving the Well-Being of Ethnic and Racial Minority Workers. Washington, DC: APA ; 2017. Publisher's Version
Sin NL, Almeida DM, Crain TL, Kossek EE, Berkman LF, Buxton OM. Bidirectional, Temporal Associations of Sleep with Positive Events, Affect, and Stressors in Daily Life Across a Week. Annals of Behavioral Medicine [Internet]. 2017 :1–14. Publisher's VersionAbstract
Sleep is intricately tied to emotional well-being, yet little is known about the reciprocal links between sleep and psychosocial experiences in the context of daily life.
2016
Lee S, Almeida DM, Berkman LF, Olson R, Moen P, Buxton OM. Age differences in workplace intervention effects on employees' nighttime and daytime sleep. Sleep Health [Internet]. 2016;2 (4) :289 - 296. Publisher's VersionAbstract
To examine the effects of a workplace flexibility/support intervention on employees' sleep quantity and quality during nights and days and whether the effects differ by employee age. Cluster-randomized controlled trial. Information technology industry workplaces. US employees (Mage=46.9years) at an information technology firm who provided actigraphy at baseline and a 12-month follow-up (N=396; n=195 interventio
Moen P, Lee S-R, Oakes JM, Fan W, Bray JW, Almeida DM, Hammer LB, Hurtado DA, Buxton OM. Can a Flexibility/Support Initiative Reduce Turnover Intentions and Exits? Results from the Work, Family, and Health Network. Social Problems [Internet]. 2016. Publisher's VersionAbstract

We draw on panel data from a randomized field experiment to assess the effects of a flexibility/supervisor support initiative called STAR on turnover intentions and voluntary turnover among professional technical workers in a large firm. An unanticipated exogenous shock—the announcement of an impending merger—occurred in the middle of data collection. Both organizational changes reflect an emerging employment contract characterized by increasing employee temporal flexibility even as employers wield greater flexibility in reorganizing their workforces. We theorized STAR would reduce turnover intentions and actual turnover by making it more attractive to stay with the current employer. We found being in a STAR team (versus a usual practice team) lowered turnover intentions 12 months later and reduced the risk of voluntary turnover over almost three years. We also examined potential mechanisms accounting for the effects of these two organizational changes; STAR effects on reducing turnover intentions are partially mediated by reducing work-to-family conflict, family-to-work conflict, burnout, psychological distress, perceived stress, and increasing job satisfaction. The effect of learning about the merger on increasing turnover intentions is fully mediated by increased job insecurity. STAR also moderates the negative effects of learning about the merger on turnover intentions for different subgroups. Findings provide insights into the effectiveness of an organizational intervention, the dynamics of organizations, and how competing logics of two organizational changes affect employees’ labor market expectations and behavior.

Lee S, Crain TL, McHale SM, Almeida DM, Buxton OM. Daily antecedents and consequences of nightly sleep. Journal of Sleep Research [Internet]. 2016. Publisher's VersionAbstract

Sleep can serve as both cause and consequence of individuals’ everyday experiences. We built upon prior studies of the correlates of sleep, which have relied primarily on cross-sectional data, to examine the antecedents and consequences of sleep using a daily diary design. Specifically, we assessed the temporal sequence between nightly sleep and daily psychosocial stressors. Parents employed in a US information technology company (n = 102) completed eight consecutive daily diaries at both baseline and 1 year later. In telephone interviews each evening, participants reported on the previous night's sleep hours, sleep quality and sleep latency. They also reported daily work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy (i.e. perceptions of not having enough time) for their child and for themselves to engage in exercise. Multi-level models testing lagged and non-lagged effects simultaneously revealed that sleep hours and sleep quality were associated with next-day consequences of work-to-family conflict and time inadequacy, whereas psychosocial stressors as antecedents did not predict sleep hours or quality that night. For sleep latency, the opposite temporal order emerged: on days with more work-to-family conflict or time inadequacy for child and self than usual, participants reported longer sleep latencies than usual. An exception to this otherwise consistent pattern was that time inadequacy for child also preceded shorter sleep hours and poorer sleep quality that night. The results highlight the utility of a daily diary design for capturing the temporal sequences linking sleep and psychosocial stressors.

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